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Summer School: “People in the Digital Age” (Digital Prosopography)

Monday, 06. July 2020, 10:00 - Friday, 10. July 2020, 15:00

The summer school introduces humanists of any disciplinary affiliation with basic computer literacy in digital tools, and how to create and analyse prosopographical data. (read more)

Talks by Francesco Beretta

The contents of this page and slides are published under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License except for quoted texts and graphics to which the rights of the respective authors apply.

Data modelling IV: Historical information and foundational ontologies

Modelling prosopographical data and making them re-usable for new research agendas according to the FAIR principles requires an in-depth analysis on how to develop an interoperable conceptualization in the field of historical research. After introducing the symogih.org project’s patterns-based ontology approach, we’ll analyse the role that factual information plays in the process of historical knowledge production. We’ll then develop an epistemological and semantic analysis of conceptual data modelling based on the foundational ontologies Constructive Descriptions and Situations and DOLCE, and discuss the reasons for adopting the CIDOC CRM as a core ontology in the field of historical research.

The FAIR principles


  • [Staab 2009] Steffen Staab, ed. Handbook on ontologies, 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 2009.
  • [Domingue et al. 2011] John Domingue, Dieter Fensel, James A. Hendler, ed. Handbook of semantic web technologies. Berlin: Springer, 2011.

DIKW Pyramid

  • Rowley J. E. (2007). The wisdom hierarchy: representations of the DIKW hierarchy. Journal of Information Sci ence 33(2), p. 163–180.

The symogih.org project

Epistemological backgroud


Modelling: object-oriented (UML) or OWL/RDF ?
OWL and Description Logic
  • Franz Baader. The description logic handbook : theory, implementation, and applications, 2nd ed. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Markus Krötzsch, Frantisek Simancik, et Ian Horrocks, « A Description Logic Primer », arXiv:1201.4089 [cs], 3 juin 2013.
  • Harald Sack, “4.3 Classes, Instances and Properties in OWL”. Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Web Technologies, OpenHPI Tutorials, 2019


  • Masolo, C., Borgo, S., Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., Ol- tramari, A. (2003). WonderWeb Deliverable D18 Ontology Library (final), Trento, Laboratory For Applied Ontology.
  • Borgo S., Masolo C. (2009). Foundational Choices in DOLCE. Handbook on Ontologies. Berlin/Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, p. 361-381.

Descriptions and situations – DnS

  • Gangemi A., Mika P. (2003). Understanding the Semantic Web through Descriptions and Situations. On The Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2003: CoopIS, DOA, and ODBASE. Berlin/Heidelberg, Springer, p. 689-706.
  • Bottazzi E., Catenacci C., Gangemi A., Lehmann J.(2006). From collective intentionality to intentional collectives: An ontological perspective. Cognitive Systems Re- search 7 (2-3), p. 192-208.
  • Gangemi A., Lehmann J., Catenacci C. (2008). Norms and plans as unification criteria for social collectives. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 17, p. 70-112.



  • Doerr M. (2003). The CIDOC CRM. An Ontological Ap- proach to Semantic Interoperability of Metadata. AI Magazine vol. 24, number 3, p.75-92.
  • Doerr M., Hunter J., Lagoze C. (2003). Towards a Core Ontology for Information Integration, Journal of Digital In- formation 4(1).
  • Doerr M. (2009). Ontologies for Cultural Heritage. Handbook on ontologies. 2nd ed., Berlin, Springer, p. 463-486.
  • CIDOC CRM 6.2.1 – Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model, Produced by the ICOM/CIDOC Documentation Standards Group, Continued by the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group Version 6.2.1 October 2015 Current Main Editors: Patrick Le Boeuf, Martin Doerr, Christian Emil Ore, Stephen Stead, Contributors: Trond Aalberg, Detlev Balzer, Chryssoula Bekiari, Lina Boudouri, Nick Crofts, Gordon Dunsire, Øyvind Eide, Tony Gill, Günther Goerz, Monika Hagedorn-Saupe, Gerald Hiebel, Jon Holmen, Juha Inkari, Dolores Iorizzo, Juha Kotipelto, Siegfried Krause, Karl Heinz Lampe, Carlos Lamsfus, Jutta Lindenthal, Mika Nyman, Pat Riva, Lene Rold, Richard Smiraglia, Regine Stein, Matthew Stiff, Maja Žumer Copyright © 2003 ICOM/CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group
  • Doerr M., Meghini C. (2018). A first-order logic expres- sion of the CIDOC conceptual reference model . Interna- tional Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies 13 (2), p. 131-149.
Time management in the CIDOC CRM
  • James F. Allen, « Towards a General Theory of Action and Time », Artificial Intelligence 23, nᵒ 2 (1 juillet 1984): 123‑54.
  • J. Holmen et Christian-Emil Ore (2010), « Deducing Event Chronology in a Cultural Heritage Documentation System », in Frischer, B., J. Webb Crawford and D. Koller (eds.), Making History Interactive. Oxford: Arcaeopress, 2010, 122‑129.
Discovering and learning the CIDOC CRM

Data modelling V: Exploring and extending the CIDOC CRM

The CIDOC CRM (an ISO norm since 2006) has been defined as a “formal ontology intended to facilitate the integration, mediation and interchange of heterogeneous cultural heritage information” (Martin Doerr). Although there are significant intersections between the two fields of cultural heritage preservation in museums and historical research, the CRM has to be extended with some relevant, missing high-level classes in order to meet the needs of the latter. Furthermore, there is a need to enrich the ontology with the modelling patterns required for the fine-grained data production in all the different fields of historical research, and notably in prosopography. We will see how collaborative data modelling carried out in the ontology management environment OntoME makes it possible to elaborate a communal and adaptive conceptualization of the domain.

fairdata/vienna_summer_school_2020.txt · Dernière modification: 2021/07/12 13:54 par Francesco Beretta